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Monday, September 27, 2010 10:51:27 PM 
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Type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is a lifelong (chronic) disease that develops when the pancreas cannot produce enough insulin or the body is unable to use it. In many people, the body first becomes resistant to insulin and then eventually loses the ability to produce it.

Insulin is a hormone that allows sugar (glucose) to enter cells, where it is used for energy. It also helps the body store extra sugar in muscle, fat, and liver cells. The stored sugar can be released later and used for energy when needed. When the body does not have enough insulin or cannot use it properly, the blood sugar level rises above what is healthy. Very high blood sugar levels can lead to loss of consciousness (coma) and death.

Uncontrolled diabetes over time can lead to complications, such as damage to the heart, blood vessels, eyes, kidneys, and nerves.

In the past, type 2 diabetes was considered an adult disease. Type 1 diabetes was associated with children. However, the number of children being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes is increasing. In some areas, up to 45% of the children diagnosed with diabetes have type 2. 1

The major factors that increase a child's risk for developing type 2 diabetes are being overweight, not physically active, and having a family history of the disease.

What causes it?

The cause is not known, but experts believe a family history of diabetes, being overweight, and lack of exercise contribute to the disease. Other risk factors include:

    * Being female.
    * Being an African-American, Hispanic, Native American, Asian-American, or Pacific Islander.
    * Having a mother who had diabetes that developed during pregnancy (gestational diabetes).

During the early teen years, when children are growing rapidly, hormone changes reduce the body's ability to use insulin. The pancreas produces more insulin to try to overcome the resistance. When the pancreas cannot produce enough insulin to meet the body's needs, blood sugar levels rise above a healthy range, and diabetes develops.

What are the symptoms?

Most children with type 2 diabetes do not have symptoms when the disease is diagnosed. Diabetes is usually discovered when the child sees a health professional for another reason. If symptoms are present, they are usually mild—slight increases in frequency of urination and in thirst and a slight weight loss.

Some children have very high blood sugar levels when the disease is discovered. A child with very high blood sugar can become confused, sleepy, or unconscious, and will need to be taken to the emergency room and hospitalized.

How is it diagnosed?

A simple blood test is usually all that is needed to diagnose diabetes. If it is unclear whether your child has type 1 or type 2, other blood tests may be done.

Most children are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes when they have a blood or urine test for some other reason. A health professional also may test your child for diabetes if he or she is overweight, gets little physical activity, or has other risk factors for the disease. In addition, your child may be tested if he or she has certain medical problems that also can occur in people with diabetes, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, irregular menstrual periods or polycystic ovary syndrome, a skin condition called acanthosis nigricans, or persistent infections.

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Our mission is to educate the general public on stem cell therapies now available to treat common neurological diseases and injuries.

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Stem Cells 101 Stem Cells 101
This page will explain stem cell therapies.  It answer many questions you may have regarding stem cell therapy for many common neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, stroke and multiple sclerosis
Patients' Experiences Patients' Experiences
This page will share patient's experiences.  We expect this page to grow as more people participate.
Treatable Conditions Treatable Conditions
An informative that lists conditions that may be treated with stem cell therapies.
Frequently asked Questions FAQ
Frequently asked questions regarding stem cell therapies. This is a forum discussion, so if you are a registered member, you can ask questions here.
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